研究

隐私重在保持领先一步。Firo 背后的团队充分研究有史以来的一些最重要的区块链隐私协议,这些技术都被提炼到 Firo 中。

lelantus

Lelantus 技术

Lelantus 是 Firo 的 Aram Jivanyan 开发的下一代隐私协议。Lelantus 允许你烧掉你的币,它将币隐藏在一个超过 65000 个的匿名集中。接收者可以从这个匿名池中赎回它,它打破了你的交易和之前所有交易的链接。

学术论文

Lelantus: Private transactions with hidden origins and amounts based on DDH (Aram Jivanyan)

Lelantus is Firo’s next generation privacy protocol which improves on Sigma by removing the requirement of fixed denominations allowing people to burn arbitrary amounts and redeem partial amounts without revealing values or the source. Lelantus doesn’t require any trusted setup and uses only DDH assumptions. It also supports untraceable direct anonymous payments by allowing people to pass the right to redeem to someone else. Lelantus is Firo’s own innovation.

Hierarchical One-out-of-Many Proofs With Applications to Blockchain Privacy and Ring Signatures (Aram Jivanyan)

In this work, we introduce a new method of instantiating one-out-of-many proofs which reduces the proof generation time by an order of magnitude. In certain practical applications our method also helps to fasten the verification process of multiple simultaneously generated proofs. Our approach still results in shorter proofs comprised of only a logarithmic number of commitments and does not compromise the highly efficient batch verification properties endemic to the original construction. We believe this work can also foster further research towards building more efficient one-out-of-many proofs which are extremely useful constructions in the blockchain privacy space and beyond.

sigma

Sigma 技术

我们相信区块链的最终目的是建立不需要信任的系统,并且同样的原则也适用于我们的隐私系统本身。这就是为什么我们在 2018 年为 Zcoin 构建 Sigma 的原因。Sigma 使用 256 位 ECC 曲线,证明大小仅为 1.5 kB,是当时技术的 17 倍改进。Sigma 是 Lelantus 的前身,为我们今天的地位奠定了许多垫脚石。

Academic Papers

One-out-of-Many Proofs: Or How to Leak a Secret and Spend a Coin (Jens Groth et al)

One out of Many Proofs forms the foundation of Sigma which improves on Zerocoin by removing trusted setup and reducing proof sizes. Firo is also applying some further efficiency modifications to the original paper. Sigma is in development and is slated to be released in Q1 2019.

dandelion

Dandelion 技术

Dandelion++ 保护你的 IP 地址。在 Firo 交易广播到整个网络之前,它们会在节点之间随机洗牌几步。这样,广播的来源就与你的 IP 地址解除了关联。

学术论文

Dandelion++ Lightweight Cryptocurrency Networking with Formal Anonymity Guarantees (Giula Fanti et al)

Dandelion++ was originally developed for Bitcoin as a way to obscure the origin of transactions by changing the way transactions propagate through the network. Dandelion++ is slated to go live on Bitcoin Core 0.18. Firo was the first project to go live with Dandelion++ on mainnet in September 2018.

MTP

分散和公平的安全

Firo 的默克尔树证明(MTP)挖矿算法进一步增强了交易的实用匿名性。MTP 占用大量内存,阻止了矿工集中化。但是,普通节点可以绕过此内存要求。2017 年由 Zcoin 发起的审计证明了这种两管齐下的方法的有效性。

MTP: Egalitarian Computing (Alex Biryukov, Dmitry Khovratovich) (revision and improvement funded by Firo)

MTP is the Proof of Work algorithm that Firo uses that promotes egalitarian mining while maintaining quick verification. The original paper had flaws as identified by Dinur and Nadler. Firo organized a bounty to harden MTP and also funded research to solve these issues as reflected in the linked paper. MTP was coded from the ground up by Firo and switched to the MTP algorithm in December 2018.